There are mainly two different coffee species: Arabica and Robusta.
Arabica beans, generally more highly regarded than robusta coffee, represent more than 70% of the world’s coffee production. Arabica beans are most commonly grown at altitudes between 1000m and 2000m with an optimal temperature ranging from 15 to 24 degree Celsius, on trees up to 5-6 meters tall. Arabica beans have a wider taste range, between varieties and typically produce mild, sweet and aromatic coffee with tones of sugar, fruit, and berries. Their acidity is higher, with that winey taste that characterizes coffee with excellent acidity. Arabica beans contains approximately half the caffeine content of the Robusta beans: 0.8% to 1.4% caffeine content. Arabica coffee is grown throughout Latin America, Central and East Africa, India and to some extent in Indonesia.
Robusta coffee tends to be bitter, stronger and more full bodied than Arabica, often characterized by its peanutty aftertaste. Good quality Robusta seeds are used in traditional Italian espresso blends to provide a full bodied taste and a better foam head (‘crema’). Robusta coffee is cultivated at lower altitudes (typically below 700m) and warmer climates (24 to 30 degree Celsius), on trees up to 10-12 meters tall. It is more disease and pest resistant, partly due to the 1.7% - 4.0% caffeine content, corresponding to about 40–50% more than Arabica. Robusta coffee is grown in West and Central Africa, throughout South-East Asia and to some extent in Brazil.